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What is detergent?
Detergent products contain one or more synthetic surfactants as the main cleaning agent.
A wide range of surfactants with different properties have been produced by chemical reaction of hydrocarbons (derived from petroleum, animal fats or vegetable oils) with a range of other chemicals.
Other ingredients such as builders, fragrance, colour and preservative may be added to a detergent product to fine-tune its properties and enhance efficacy.
Detergents are not soaps!
Click here for more information on laundry detergent ingredients.
Two separate scientists, French pharmacist Eugene Schueller and Austrian chemist Franz Greiter, are credited with development of the first sunscreens.
The first zinc sun cream was developed.
The ‘Sun Protection Factor’ (SPF) was developed by Franz Greiter as a way to measure a product’s ability to block ultraviolet rays.
Water-resistant sunscreen was invented
The first UVA/UVB sunscreen was developed. Research in the 1980s gave increased understanding into the effects of UVA and UVB.
Many different formulations catering for different needs and preferences have been developed.
Limit/control vehicle access
Minimise/control vehicle movement around the property
Regularly clean and disinfect wheels, load platforms and undercarriages
Limit/control people access
Provide clean protective footwear or footbaths for visitors
Change into work clothing on-site
Hand washing products and facilities
Launder work clothing on-site
Clean footwear between areas, e.g. using footbaths
Have dedicated machinery and equipment for the farm area, when possible, or…
Clean and disinfect machinery and equipment before it enters the farm
Routines for cleaning and disinfection of machinery and equipment, including feed and drink containers, manual garden tools and veterinary equipment
Routines for cleaning and disinfection of buildings, animal housings, chutes and passages
Check new seeds, seedlings, soil and mulch for signs of contamination or disease
Check health of new animals
Efficient removal of crop residues and animal waste
Work from young to old plants in the field
Test water quality
Treat water, as appropriate
Have dedicated animal water containers that are regularly cleaned and disinfected
Monitor water (and soil) quality, water flow, and the condition of pipes and tanks
Hygiene in the dairy industry serves two purposes:
Protecting the health of livestock – optimising herd productivity and minimising animal suffering.
Protecting the quality of the dairy product – protecting human health by eliminating all sources of faecal, bacterial, physical and chemical contamination.
Maintain animal cleanliness through grooming
Trim tail, flame udder & manually remove soiling e.g. by brushing
Maintain clean cubicles, yards, feeding equipment, transport vehicles and bedding
“Dry clean” by scrubbing, sweeping, scraping etc
Clean and sanitise by spraying with detergent-sanitiser
Disinfect with broad-spectrum disinfectant
“Fog” the area with an aerosolised disinfectant
Prevent overcrowding and discomfort
Provide adequate room for lying down and for loafing
Minimise incidence and spread of disease
Isolate infected animals and medicate, as appropriate
Keep calves separated from the herd
Ensure hygienic milking practices
Clean hands and forearms and cover skin wounds
Wash, dry and disinfect teats and udders before each milking using wipes/dips/sprays
Clean, disinfect and rinse milking equipment and milk surface contact areas
Milk any infected animals last
Prevent contamination during milk handling
Cool milk quickly
Clean and sanitise bulk storage tanks between batches
Exclude vermin, birds, insects etc
Establish quality control procedures
Perform chemical, physical and organoleptic (sensory – taste, colour, odour and feel) tests
Isolate abnormal milk and milk from animals showing signs of udder disease
Sources: Dairy Australia, “Dairy Biosecurity: Healthy Farms”; Food Standards Agency (England), 2015, “Milk Hygiene on the Dairy Farm. A practical Guide for Milk Producers“
Raw meat can contain pathogens including E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Yersinia. These can cause illness and meat spoilage. Because most raw meats are cooked at a later stage, hygiene in meat and poultry production helps destroy microorganisms that could otherwise multiply during subsequent storage and preparation.
Ready-to-eat meat products can also contain pathogens, with Listeria species being found particularly in pork products. As these meats do not undergo further cooking or treatment, hygienic production is of the utmost importance.
Scrape/sweep/wipe away excess soil
Apply appropriate I&I detergent as per manufacturer’s directions to remove soils
Use water to remove soils and detergent
Apply appropriate I&I sanitiser as per manufacturer’s directions to kill microorganisms
Cleaning removes soils, grease, rust and odours from utensils, equipment, surfaces and floors.
Commercial detergents are sophisticated, specialised cleaning products designed to remove the complex combination of food soil components from a range of different food preparation surfaces. Because no single detergent can remove all types of food soils, commercial detergents are available in different classes, including:
Sanitising reduces the number of pathogens and food spoilage microorganisms to safe levels. This can be done using heat, steam, hot water, or chemical sanitisers.
Commercial sanitisers come in several different classes including chlorinated compounds, iodine-based compounds, quaternary ammonium compounds, peroxides, acid-anionic compounds and alcohols.
These different classes of sanitisers have different anti-microbial activity, are active at different temperatures and pHs, have different surface impacts (including corrosivity, staining, and residue), have different foaming properties, different odours, and different tolerance of water hardness, pH and residual soils.
Therefore, it is important that the product choice matches the application, and that the correct concentration, surface contact time and temperature is used.
Sanitisers are designed as either rinse or no-rinse products.
Cast iron ovens and stoves were common, using wood fire contained in a chamber.
Coal and gas-fuelled ovens were invented.
The electric oven, first invented in the 1890s, became more common in households as the supply of electricity became more reliable.
The microwave oven was invented, and after initial use predominantly in hotels and restaurants, began to be used in USA homes in the 1950s.
Modern induction stoves were developed, generating heat in magnetic cookware using magnetic coils to create an electromagnetic current.
Cleanrooms are environments where airborne particles, temperature, humidity and pressure are all highly controlled.
This is important for some areas of manufacturing including semiconductors/electronic circuits, pharmaceuticals, biotech and medical devices, as well as in some areas of scientific research.
The aim is to minimise contamination, including by dust, microorganisms, aerosols and chemical vapours.
Cleanrooms require careful design and management of:
Cleanrooms are classified by the number of airborne particles per cubic metre according to a specified standard, such as ISO 14644, which has been adopted into the Australian Standard AS/NZS 14644 2002.
Facial skin can be classified as dry, normal, oily or combination.
Dry skin can feel tight and rough and look dull.
Normal skin has fine pores, soft and smooth texture without pimples or acne.
Oily skin can appear shiny with clearly visible pores and is more prone to pimples and acne.
Combination skin has an oily forehead, chin and nose (“T-zone”) and normal to dry cheeks.
Sensitive skin is easily irritated and may show redness.
Yeast microorganisms are essential in the fermentation of beer. However, careful control over the process is required to prevent beer spoilage.
Microorganisms that can cause beer spoilage include lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, Zymomonas species, Pectinatus species, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and wild yeasts. These can disrupt fermentation, produce undesired by-products, and may even survive fermentation to transfer into the finished product.
What is soap?
Soap is formed by the chemical reaction of animal fat or vegetable oil with alkali.
fat + alkali → soap
Other ingredients such as fragrance, colour and preservative may be added.
What are regulations?
Regulations are the rules that need to be followed by manufacturers and suppliers of hygiene products.
Regulations protect safety by specifying things like:
What are regulators?
Regulators are the organisations responsible for administering regulations. This includes handling aspects such as:
Are you wary of “chemical” products, preferring “natural” products?
Firstly, everything is made of chemicals. Including water. Including you and I! So, of course, “natural” products are chemicals or are made from chemicals.
Secondly, any substance can be harmful in certain quantities, or in the wrong place, or if used in the wrong way. It is the substance’s properties and how it is used that are important – whether a substance is man-made, extracted from the environment or an exact man-made copy of a chemical from the natural environment is irrelevant.
In fact, man-made chemicals can have several advantages over natural extracts:
Thirdly, do you really want your baby’s nappies, public toilets and industrial meat production facilities to be cleaned with little more than elbow grease?
“Fit-for-purpose” is a key concept: cleaning and hygiene products should effectively achieve their intended purpose, whilst adhering to Australia’s rigorous regulatory requirements.
The health risks from using unsuitable cleaning products – or not using any – far outweighs the risk from proper use of the product in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions.